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    Lightweighting of aerospace and aeronautical equipment: Challenges and perspectives
    Weihong ZHANG, Changhong TANG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (5): 529965-529965.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29965
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    Lightweight is a substantial theme in the research and development of aerospace and aeronautical equipment due to its decisive impact on the comprehensive performance and operational efficiency of the equipment. Over the past decades, a handful of innovative optimization design approaches, emerging high-performance materials, and revolutionary manufacturing technologies have been uninterruptedly developed, and the level of lightweighting in aerospace and aeronautical equipment has been significantly advanced. However, the increasing demands for comprehensive performance and multifunctionality of the next generation of equipment present serious challenges to existing lightweight design and manufacturing technologies. Therefore, with a particular emphasis on the layout design, electromechanical system design, materials and structures, high-performance manufacturing and assembly, this paper analyzes the posed challenges and future perspectives.

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    A review of urban air mobility and its new infrastructure low⁃altitude public routes
    Xiaohan LIAO, Wenqiu QU, Chenchen XU, Hongbo HE, Junwei WANG, Weibo SHI
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (24): 28521-028521-.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28521
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    Technological breakthroughs have once again spawned a lot of attention to the commercialization of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) in urban low-altitude airspace. The urban low-altitude airspace environment is complex, the density of urban air traffic flow in commercial scenarios is high, and the specifications of vehicles are not uniform. As a new infrastructure for UAM, low-altitude public routes are an important means for UAM to carry out refined management. However, the planning methods of low-altitude public routes, the required infrastructure, and the urban air traffic operation and control mode are still unclear. In response to the above issues, this article sorts out the basic concepts and development history of UAM and low-altitude public air routes, as well as UAM management based on low-altitude public air routes; In addition, an UAM operation management framework is proposed. Suggestions and countermeasures are provided on the possible responsibilities of relevant administrative departments in the development UAM; Finally, the construction method of low-altitude public routes network, the difficulties in the development process of UAM and implementation suggestions are summarized, in order to shed light on the healthy and orderly development of the UAM.

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    Research progress of UAV aerial video multi⁃object detection and tracking based on deep learning
    Yubin YUAN, Yiquan WU, Langyue ZHAO, Jinlin CHEN, Qichang ZHAO
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (18): 28334-028334.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28334
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    With the increasing convenience of data acquisition for aerial photography of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the multi-target detection and tracking technology based on the UAV platform has developed rapidly and has broad prospects for applications in civil and military fields. In recent years, the rapid progress of in-depth learning has also provided a variety of more effective solutions. However, the challenging problems such as sudden changes in the appearance of the target, serious occlusion of the target area, and disappearance and reappearance of the target from the perspective of UAV have not been completely solved. In this paper, we summarize the algorithms for multi-target detection and tracking in UAV aerial video based on deep learning, and summarize the latest progress in this field, including multi-target detection and multi-object tracking. The multi-object detection module is divided into two parts: two-stage and one-stage detection. For the multi-object tracking module, according to the two classical frameworks of tracking-based detection and joint-detection tracking, the principles of the two algorithms are described and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Then, the existing public data sets are statistically analyzed, and the optimal schemes of the benchmark challenge VisDrone Challenge in the field of multi-target detection and tracking based on UAV aerial video in recent years are compared and analyzed. Finally, the paper discusses the urgent problems of multi-object detection and tracking from the perspective of UAV and the possible research directions in the future, providing a reference for the follow-up researchers.

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    Mechanisms, algorithms, implementation and perspectives of brain⁃inspired navigation
    Xiangwei ZHU, Dan SHEN, Kai XIAO, Yuexin MA, Xiang LIAO, Fuqiang GU, Fangwen YU, Kefu GAO, Jingnan LIU
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (19): 28569-028569.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28569
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    The rapid development of brain and neuroscience in recent decades has initially revealed the neural mechanism of animal navigation. Drawing on the brain neural structures and information processing mechanisms, the study of brain-inspired intelligent navigation systems provides new inspiration for low-power, highly robust autonomous intelligent navigation in complex environments. Based on a detailed review of the neural mechanisms of animal spatial navigation, this paper then outlines and discusses current intelligent algorithms for robotic bionic brain-inspired navigation, which can be categorized into three types according to the three types of neural networks used to process navigation information for intelligent navigation: attractor neural networks, deep reinforcement learning, and spiking neural networks. Then, the ways for implementing brain-inspired navigation, including bionic intelligent sensors and neuromorphic processor platforms, are sorted out. Finally, the development trend of brain-inspired navigation is discussed, including further exploration of the brain neural mechanism of navigation in the biological world and its information processing process with low energy consumption and high robustness mechanism, subcategorization of the conceptual connotation of brain-inspired navigation, and the ways to improve the evaluation index and the unified implementation framework.

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    Coordinated Manned/Unmanned Aerial Warfare: Concepts, Technologies, and Challenges
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29653
    Accepted: 07 December 2023

    A review of topology optimization design methods for multi-scale structures
    Xiaoqian CHEN, Yong ZHAO, Senlin HUO, Zeyu ZHANG, Bingxiao DU
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (15): 528863-528863.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28863
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    Multi-scale structure is one of the important directions of next-generation structural lightweighting and has great potential and strategic value for application in the aerospace field. Topology optimization techniques for multi-scale structures have also been extensively researched, leading to great progress and achievements. However, many challenges and difficulties remain before realizing actual engineering practice. This paper firstly introduces the mainstream methods and characteristics of single-scale structural topology optimization, the basic idea and special position of homogenization methods, as well as the relationship between topology optimization methods for multi-scale structures and topology optimization methods for single-scale structures. Then, using the structural distribution characteristics as the classification criteria, this paper systematically sorted out the topology optimization design methods for three distribution forms of multi-scale structures: periodic, functional gradient and heterogeneous. For the important issues, including structural connectivity, applicability of multi-scale methods, and application of machine learning technology in multi-scale structural topology optimization, relevant research progresses are reviewed and discussed. Finally, pressing challenges and important research directions in the field are summarized and prospected.

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    Deformation modes and key technologies of aerodynamic layout design for morphing aircraft: Review
    Shusheng CHEN, Muliang JIA, Yanxu LIU, Zhenghong GAO, Xinghao XIANG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (6): 629595-629595.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29595
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    Morphing aircraft, capable of real-time shape deformation according to task requirements and flight conditions to achieve optimal flight performance, has emerged as a significant direction for the future development of aircraft. This paper reviews the research status of deformation modes and key technologies of aerodynamic layout design for morphing aircraft. Firstly, the development of morphing aircraft can be divided into two stages by the progression of time: the mechanical deformation stage and the flexible and muti-dimensional deformation stage. Then, this article summarizes morphing solutions for different parts of the aircraft, namely, the head deformation, wing deformation, power plant deformation, and combined deformation. It particularly explores the developmental history of various wing morphing schemes, discusses their applications in different aerodynamic configurations including variable sweep wing, variable forward sweep wing, folding wing, telescopic wing, oblique wing, continuous variable curvature wing, and analyzes their aerodynamic and stability characteristics, respectively. Next, the implementation objectives of morphing aircraft are summarized and divided into three types: single domain optimal variable configuration, multi-domain fusion variable configuration, and one vessel multi-energy variable configuration. Subsequently, compared with fixed shape aircraft, the key technical challenges in aerodynamic layout and overall coordination design, time-varying aerodynamic effect evaluation, aerodynamic layout scheme optimization, and multidisciplinary coupling design derived from the implementation of morphing aircraft are analyzed, with particular focus on the research progress and current status of dynamic aerodynamic calculation methods and aerodynamic optimization design technologies for morphing aircraft. Finally, the future research direction and development prospects of morphing technologies are envisioned. Targeting at the needs of wide velocity domain and large airspace flight, exploring new conceptual deformation methods that can improve the performance of multiple flight missions and establishing intelligent morphing design model and multidisciplinary strong coupling integrated design system will become important development trends.

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    Research on All-Domain Fire Field in Future Air Combat
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29699
    Accepted: 13 October 2023

    Development needs and difficulty analysis for smart morphing aircraft
    Xuhui ZHANG, Chunlei XIE, Sijia LIU, Ming YAN, Siyuan XING
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (21): 529302-529302.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29302
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    With the development and application of artificial intelligent technologies in the military field, future intelligent warfare is to demonstrate the following traits: more complex cognition and decision making, more rapid changes and evolution, and access and denial in the whole warfare. The next-generation flight vehicles will be flight-demand oriented, artificial-intelligence centered, and changing flexible. Smart morphing aircraft, obviously characterized by intelligent technology and deformation technology, can have dual advantages of fast algorithm upgrades and extremely flexible hardware. It introduces new flight modes and combat capabilities, and will therefore become an important trend. However, smart morphing aircraft design requires complicated technologies. The costs of deformation, such as the increased complexity of the machine system, pose challenges to aerodynamic design, flight control, and structural implementation. The challenges include the full-profile optimization, structural application, and performance prediction and validation in the deformation process, where the core problem is to achieve the optimal design in each shape in the context of multidisciplinary engineering.

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    A survey of computational methods for spacecraft orbit ropagation and Lambert problems
    Haoyang FENG, Xuechuan WANG, Xiaokui YUE, Changtao WANG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (13): 28027-028027.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2022.28027
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    Spacecraft orbit computation is a fundamental problem in the field of aerospace dynamics and control. Future space missions put forward higher demands for more accurate and real-time orbit computational methods. The research on new orbit computational methods with higher performances has significant application value for future aerospace engineering of China. This paper summarizes the research background of space orbit computation and then gives a systematic review of various types of computational methods for solving orbit propagation and Lambert problems. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as the development tendency of orbit computational methods are discussed. This paper can provide references for choosing suitable computational methods in specific aerospace tasks, as well as inspirations for designing novel and high-performance orbit computational methods.

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    Research progress in aero-engine combustion instability prediction and control
    Xiaofeng SUN, Guangyu ZHANG, Xiaoyu WANG, Lei LI, Xiangyang DENG, Ronghui CHENG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (14): 628733-628733.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28733
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    The problem of combustion instability widely exists in various types of aero-engine combustion chambers. This problem is the result of the coupling between the unsteady heat release of the flame and acoustic waves. Its occurrence is accompanied by a large pressure pulsation, which seriously threatens the stable operation and structural safety of the engine. At present, all aero-engine development countries have encountered serious combustion instability problems in the development process of most engine models. The more advanced the engine is, the more complex and difficult it is to solve the problem. It is of great significance for the development of aero-engines to accurately predict and design effective control methods based on its occurrence mechanism. The research status of this problem is systematically described. The key factor of the problem is introduced, that is, the unsteady flow and flame response characteristics of the military bluff body combustion afterburner and the civil lean premixed annular combustor. Furthermore, the eigenvalue-based predictive acoustic network models commonly used in the study of this problem are reviewed. The three-dimensional combustion instability prediction model developed by our team is highlighted, which considers the acoustic soft wall control design of the combustion chamber wall. Based on this model, the research progress of the influence of the parameters and layout of the wall acoustic lining on the combustion instability mode is reviewed, providing technical reserves for improving the combustion instability troubleshooting capability.

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    Networking and control mechanism for low-altitude intelligent networks
    Qihui WU, Chao DONG, Ziye JIA, Can CUI, Simeng FENG, Fuhui ZHOU, Hua XIE
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (3): 28809-028809.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28809
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    Low-Altitude Intelligent Network (LAIN), as a new type of intelligent network, relies on space-air-ground-sea facilities to constitute a digital intelligent network system. It is a key component of the space-air-ground integrated network, and can support the seamless and ubiquitous connections of the sixth generation communication technology and promote the development of intelligent network service from ground to low-altitude space. However, LAIN is still in the developing stage and faces the following key challenges: intractability of aerial control, severe spectrum interference, and multi-dimensional resource limitation. This article focuses on the issues of LAIN architecture and safety control, including the current development status of low-altitude network and its significance for industrial technology transformation. Then, from the perspective of spectrum resources, network resources, and airspace resource management, the recent related works are analyzed. Furthermore, we analyze the key technologies such as low-altitude aircraft air-ground spectrum sharing, sensing, transmission, computing networking coverage, low-altitude airspace intelligent supervision, and point out future development directions. Finally, an application demonstration of LAIN is proposed, aiming to satisfy the significant requirements for efficient operation and safety in low-altitude airspace, and providing the theoretical basis as well as technology for the further development of the next generation space-air-ground integrated network.

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    A review of reusable launch vehicle technology development
    Weimin BAO
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (23): 629555-629555.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29555
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    Reusable launch vehicles are an important way for humans to enter and exit space on a large scale and at a low cost. Starting from the technical requirements of vertical takeoff and landing reusable launch vehicles, this paper summarizes the technical challenges faced by vertical takeoff and landing reusable launch vehicles, and analyzes the key technologies of vertical takeoff and landing reusable launch vehicles. The research progress and future development directions of key technologies for vertical takeoff and landing reusable launch vehicles are then discussed in terms of overall optimization design, power, structure and thermal protection, navigation, guidance and control, and health management, which can provide reference for the technical research of reusable launch vehicles.

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    Research progress on vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis for aero-engine
    Minghui HU, Jinji GAO, Zhinong JIANG, Weimin WANG, Limin ZOU, Tao ZHOU, Yunfeng FAN, Yue WANG, Jiaxin FENG, Chenyang LI
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (4): 630194-630194.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2024.30194
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    Aeroengine amalgamates state-of-the-art technologies across diverse domains, serving as a comprehensive manifestation of a nation’s prowess in science and industry. Frequent malfunctions occur due to its complicated structure and harsh service environment. Therefore, it is essential to employ prognostic and health management technology to provide crucial support for aviation safety and reliable operations. As vibration faults constitute a primary failure mode in aeroengine, this paper, grounded in this premise, systematically reviews and analyzes existing vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis for aviation engines both domestically and internationally. The analysis is categorized into three dimensions, covering the application of overall vibration monitoring and diagnostic systems, typical fault characteristics and diagnostic methods, and the overall vibration fault diagnostic technology, including dynamic analysis, signal processing techniques, and relevant technologies such as deep learning. Then, the problems and challenges faced by the existing vibration fault diagnosis of aeroengine are identified. Furthermore, future development goals are provided.

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    A review of image matching methods based on deep learning
    Haiqiao LIU, Meng LIU, Zichao GONG, Jing DONG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (3): 28796-028796.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28796
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    Image matching is a key technology in aircraft visual navigation. The image matching methods based on deep learning have developed rapidly in recent years. The feature extraction network of the methods has obvious advantages over traditional methods, and has broad prospects for application. The image matching method based on deep learning can be divided into the single-link matching network model method and the end-to-end matching network model matching method according to different network structures. In this paper, the feature detection, descriptor learning, similarity measurement and error elimination network model of the network model of the single-link matching method network model are first investigated and analyzed. Then, the single-network structure method and multi-network structure combination method in the end-to-end matching network model are reviewed, and the classic end-to-end matching network model algorithm is introduced and analyzed. Finally, the problems of current image matching methods based on deep learning are pointed out, and the possible development trend and direction in the future are discussed to provide a certain reference for subsequent research on deep-learning based image matching.

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    Research progress and engineering application of flow control technology for drag and heat reduction of high-speed vehicles
    Guangsheng ZHU, Shiyong YAO, Yi DUAN
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (15): 529049-529049.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29049
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    Drag and heat reductions are two core issues in the design of high-speed flight vehicles. Drag reduction can enhance the lift-drag ratio of vehicles and decrease the fuel consumption, while heat reduction can reduce the weight of thermal protection system and promote the effective load of flight vehicles. Drag and heat reductions are the key technologies to improve the fine design and enhance the flight performance. This paper mainly reviews the research status of flow control technology for drag and heat reductions of shock wave and boundary layer, from the perspective of the engineering requirements for drag and heat reductions of high-speed flight vehicles. This paper also points out the existing problems in engineering application and the direction that should be paid close attention to in the future, to realize the engineering application of active flow control of flight vehicles and improve the flight performance.

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    Evaluation models and methods for intelligence of unmanned swarm systems based on collective OODA loop
    Bo SHEN, Wenliang WU, Gang YANG, Xingshe ZHOU
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2023, 44 (14): 328003-328003.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2022.28003
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    With the rapid development of unmanned systems and intelligent techniques, as well as the increasing complexity of the applications, intelligent unmanned swarm systems have developed rapidly. Unmanned swarms can effectively complete complex tasks via networking cooperation, and have demonstrated their potentials in the fields of defense equipment and national economy. At the same time, intelligence evaluation of unmanned swarms involves diverse scenarios, multidimensional indexes, and multi-class methods. It is quite a challenging research field. Supported by national research projects, this paper proposes the co-evolution model and the level-evaluation model based on collective Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) loop. Then. the scenario-driven evaluation process, evaluation methods and evaluation platform are proposed. A preliminary validation of the results is also conducted with Unmanned Swarm System (USS).

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    Review and prospect of research on scramjet
    Xiaoyong LIU, Mingfu WANG, Jianwen LIU, Xin REN, Xuan ZHANG
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (5): 529878-529878.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29878
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    Since the 1950s, scramjet has been regarded as a goal of the hypersonic propulsion system in the aerospace field, and extensive research work has been conducted in both theory and practical technology. At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States made a series of technological breakthroughs close to practical applications, pushing the research and application of the scramjet technology to a new stage. This paper briefly describes the working principle of the scramjet, discusses the difficulties and latest progress in key technologies such as dual-mode working process, hypersonic compression flow, supersonic combustion, ultra-high temperature structure and thermal protection, ground test and numerical simulation, and expounds the understanding and suggestions on the development direction of key technologies such as wide speed range, repeatability, and higher Mach number of scramjet.

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    Disruptive technologies in aviation: Preliminary study
    Huitao FAN, Pengfei DUAN, Cheng YUAN
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (5): 529893-529893.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.29893
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    Disruptive technologies, with their innovative and destructive characteristics, have been leading the transformation of human mode of life and combat operations, and also playing an important role in the rise and fall of major powers and civilization evolution. In the history of aviation, numerous disruptive technologies have emerged to replace the previous technologies, profoundly influencing the process of aviation and shaping the basic pattern of today's air combat and civil aviation transportation. The world is currently at the crossroads of a new round of industrial and military revolution, and whether it is possible to identify, research, and industrialize various disruptive technologies including those in the aviation field is crucial for reshaping the future social form and military landscape. This article briefly illustrates the understanding of disruptive technologies from the aspects of concept, three significant characteristics, and identification and acquisition. The important influence of disruptive technologies on the previous three industrial revolutions is discussed, the significant changes brought by five typical aviation disruptive technologies in history presented, the important trend of the high-energy and intelligent compound development of aviation science and technology in the future analyzed, nine possible disruptive technologies and potential impacts in the four fields of material manufacturing, energy power, information electronics and cross-integration predicted, and suggestions for the development of disruptive technologies in aviation proposed. We expect that more future disruptive technologies in aviation will be initiated and developed by Chinese people.

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    Applications and key challenges of polymer composites in civil aero⁃engines: State⁃of⁃art review
    Chao ZHANG, Yong CAO, Zhenqiang ZHAO, Haiyang ZHANG, Jianbo SUN, Zhihua WANG, Duokui YU
    Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica    2024, 45 (2): 28556-028556.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2023.28556
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    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are of great significance for improving the thrust-to-weight ratio, fuel economy and environmental protection of aeroengines. This paper introduces the applications of polymer composites in aero-engine. The key challenges and technologies of composites-based fan case and fan blades including the design technology of preforms with complex shapes, high-precision manufacture technology of special-shaped composite structures, multi-scale and high-fidelity modeling method of composites, and the containment design criteria for composites fan cases are summarized. Drawing on the recent research hotspots, new ideas and technologies for composite aero-engine structures are prospected.

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