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    Development of future fighters
    YANG Wei
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 524377-524377.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24377
    Abstract10969)      PDF(pc) (4047KB)(13438)       Save
    Recent years have witnessed extensive discussions on the change of warfare forms and the development of post-4th generation fighters against the background of great power competition and batches of 4th generation fighters entering service. This paper reviews the origin of fighter generation classification and the driving elements behind each generational leap, outlining the evolution of Observe, Orient, Decision, Act (OODA) loops for air combat and proposing the essence of OODA 3.0. After a summary of the supportive and progressive relations among mechanization, informatization and intelligentization, it explores the dialectical relationship among autonomy and manned/unmanned, as well as that among platform, system of systems, and distributed operation, followed finally by a discussion of an agile and efficient development approach of future fighters.
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    Digital twin and its aerospace applications
    MENG Songhe, YE Yumei, YANG Qiang, HUANG Zhen, XIE Weihua
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (9): 23615-023615.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.23615
    Abstract4375)      PDF(pc) (4740KB)(2321)       Save
    Digital twin, the link between the physical and digital worlds, has currently attracted extensive attention both at home and abroad. Through establishment of a digital model of a physical system, real-time monitoring of the system status, and driving of the dynamic model update to describe and forecast system behaviors more accurately, the online decision optimization and feedback control are realized. In this paper, analyses show that compared with a general simulation model, the digital twin has outstanding characteristics of being centralized, dynamic, and integral. The development of the digital twin requires the support of complex system modeling, sensing and monitoring, big data, dynamic data-driven analysis and decision, and software platform technology. In the field of aerospace, digital twin can be applied to the design, development, manufacturing, assembly, operation and maintenance of aircraft. This article focuses on a case of application of the airframe digital twin to life prediction and maintenance decision, which exhibits advantages of lower maintenance frequencies and maintenance costs compared with the periodic maintenance. Finally, a preliminary application framework of a ground accompanying flight system established for space stations and reusable spacecraft is demonstrated.
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    Radar cross-section effect of canard
    GUO Zhanzhi, CHEN Yingwen, MA Lianfeng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523485-523485.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23485
    Abstract3907)      PDF(pc) (4964KB)(2242)       Save
    This paper studies the Radar Cross-Section (RCS) effect on canard configuration fighter of canard. First, the scattering mechanism of canard is analyzed. And then, the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) is used to compute the configuration’s RCS of the given fighter models. And by comparing the computational results of both the canard configuration and the conventional configuration, the RCS effect of canard is analyzed, focusing on the RCS effect on fighter after the canard is rotated. In addition, a full-size parts stealth test is conducted by researching the RCS effect on fighter of both edge scattering and gap scattering and respective inhibition measures. The test results show that, after the scattering of canard is inhibited, the RCS level of canard configuration can be applied to configuration design of stealth fighter. And its stealth capacity is comparable with that of the conventional configuration. Finally, the guiding principles of canard stealth design are postulated.
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    Key technologies and future applications of thrust vectoring on fighter aircraft
    WANG Haifeng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 524057-524057.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24057
    Abstract3640)      PDF(pc) (11144KB)(5215)       Save
    Thrust vectoring can significantly expand the operational envelope of fighter aircraft and improve their flight safety and combat capabilities. A key technology in aerospace study and one of the typical features of advanced fighter aircraft, thrust vectoring involves multiple fields such as aerodynamics, air intake/exhaust, engines, and flight control. The integrated implementation of thrust vectoring is an interdisciplinary, closely-coupled and high-risk systematic project. This paper reviews the development of fighter aircraft thrust vectoring with an analysis of its key technologies. Based on the engineering practice of the first axial-symmetric thrust vectoring demonstrator in China, this paper elaborates the research on high angle of attack aerodynamic design for internal and external airflow, thrust vectoring engines, integrated flight and propulsion control and post-stall maneuvering flight test verification of fighter aircraft and other related key technologies. Finally, the contribution of thrust vectoring technology to the combat effectiveness of fighter aircraft is summarized and its future applications predicted.
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    Full-scale aircraft strength test technology of next generation fighter
    WANG Yupeng, PEI Lianjie, LI Qiulong, ZHENG Jianjun, FENG Jianmin, WANG Fan
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523482-523482.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23482
    Abstract2621)      PDF(pc) (5651KB)(1493)       Save
    This paper introduced the full-scale aircraft ground strength test and its requirements and analyzed the new problems and challenges in the test. Through the top-level planning for the test, new design mode and advanced loading technology are adopted to develop the overall technical scheme from the aspects of test boundary conditions, integrated platform, power system, measurement and control, and damage detection and monitoring. A number of new technologies, such as full-hard single-side bidirectional loading technology, test comprehensive platform design technology, boundary condition simulation technology, and power system design technology, have been studied and applied, which have improved design efficiency, accelerated test implementation speed, and improved test safety and reliability. These new technologies of this project have been successfully applied in the full-scale aircraft static/fatigue tests. The results showed that the test systems are safe and reliable, indicating that the test requirements and expected objectives have been achieved. The technologies have made great progress in the full-scale aircraft ground strength test, and the results have provided a high reference value for subsequent tests.
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    Review of aeroelasticity design for advanced fighter
    LI Qiuyan, LI Gang, WEI Yangtian, RAN Yuguo, WU Bo, TAN Guanghui, LI Yan, CHEN Shi, LEI Boqi, XU Qinwei
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523430-523430.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23430
    Abstract2369)      PDF(pc) (10636KB)(2197)       Save
    The birth of Chinese new-generation fighter leads all the technical innovation and development in aircraft designing field. Lean aero-elasticity design and verification technology system were established in AVIC Chengdu Aircraft Design and Research Institute according to the project development requirements and task particularity. Critical technology research and optimization design and analysis aiming at enhancing aircraft aero-elastic quality were carried out based on multi-disciplinary design optimization process. Whole aircraft dynamic characteristics ground test with consideration of all-movable surface structural nonlinearity, subsonic/transonic/supersonic flutter model wind tunnel tests that cover all Mach numbers and flight aero-elasticity test verification were completed and passed. Aero-elasticity design objective was achieved within a short development period, providing technical support for successful development of new-generation fighter. This paper describes the design process, major technical work of the aircraft, as well as the gained technical progress, capability enhancement, and knowledge engineering construction of aeroelastic design with research institute characteristics.
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    Miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms: Review and outlook
    WANG Xiangke, LIU Zhihong, CONG Yirui, LI Jie, CHEN Hao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (4): 23732-023732.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23732
    Abstract2362)      PDF(pc) (12788KB)(1840)       Save
    Focusing on the new direction of miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms, this paper summarizes their recent developments from three aspects, i.e, the connotation of the swarm system, the existing typical programs, and the key technologies. After a systematic introduction of the connotation and application advantages of the swarm system, the existing typical programs are summarized from four perspectives: swarm collaborative mode exploration, distributed command system construction, key technology breakthroughs, and swarm verification. The current developments of technical research are reviewed in seven key points, including system architecture, communication and networking, decision-making and planning, aircraft platform, swarm flight, swarm security and swarm command and control. Finally, the future developments in the field of miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms are forecasted.
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    Recent development of unmanned aerial vehicle swarms
    JIA Yongnan, TIAN Siying, LI Qing
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (S1): 723738-723738.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23738
    Abstract2355)      PDF(pc) (4041KB)(1885)       Save
    Swarm as a typical collective behavior is omnipresent in animal kingdom, such as fish schooling, bird flocking, and bee swarming. In a colony, large-scale synchronous behavior emerges by virtue of local sensing and very simple communication rules. Inspired by these collective performances, the swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed as a new combat pattern. These unmanned aerial vehicles are characterized by large quantity, low cost, high speed, well adaptability, and convenient carried/launched mechanism, contributing to the scale advantage of UAVs and the possession of war initiative In recent years, many military powers, such as China, Russia, United States, have made great effort to the continuous development of swarm-related technology of unmanned aerial vehicles. To resolve the swarming problem of unmanned aerial vehicles, this paper introduces the research motivations of UAVs, summarizing the research approaches from modeling, control protocol, and execution platform. Besides, several classical combat modes and involved key technologies are discussed in detail. Above all, the swarm-related technology has bright application potential in the military area, leading to a brand new combat pattern.
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    Recent development of safety and reliability analysis technology for model-based complex system
    HU Xiaoyi, WANG Ruping, WANG Xin, FU Yongtao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523436-523436.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23436
    Abstract2300)      PDF(pc) (5530KB)(1863)       Save
    Safety and reliability analyses of complex systems have always been a hot issue in the general quality characteristics design of the material. With the development of airborne system towards integration, complexity, and intellectualization, the function logic, architecture design, and fault-tolerant design of the system become more and more complex. The traditional safety and reliability analytical methods based on artificial deductive reasoning cannot meet the current requirements. The model-driven design method is becoming an important technique for the safety and reliability design of complex systems. Especially in recent years, model-based system engineering technology has developed rapidly and has been widely used and recognized in domestic and foreign aviation enterprises, providing favorable conditions for the further development of model-based system safety and reliability design technology. This paper mainly introduces the research progress of model-based safety and reliability analysis technology of complex system at home and abroad analyzing the future development direction and trend of this technology, providing references for system safety and reliability analysis of the material.
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    Current situation and development trend of multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system for aircraft
    HUANG Jiangtao, LIU Gang, GAO Zhenghong, ZHOU Zhu, CHEN Zuobin, JIANG Xiong
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (5): 623404-623404.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23404
    Abstract2107)      PDF(pc) (13721KB)(1590)       Save
    The multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system has many advantages, such as independence of multidisciplinary coupled sensitivity analysis from the number of design variables of various disciplines, and is thus an interesting development direction. This paper discusses the advantages, current situation, difficulties and future development trend of the multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system, including the disciplines of aerodynamics, structure, electromagnetism, acoustics, and infrared, which are closely related to aircraft design. The core contents, key technologies and current development situation of the single discipline and the multidisciplinary adjoint system are analyzed. The key technologies such as boundary condition processing, Jacobi derivation of multiple disciplines, and storage processing and solution of large sparse matrix are discussed systematically. The research ideas and solutions for respective key technologies and basic problems are given, and the development trend of multidisciplinary coupled adjoint theory and application is provided. Through this systematic discussion, we hope to provide meaningful suggestions for researchers engaged in multidisciplinary adjoint optimization and application, promote the research on multidisciplinary coupled system sensitivity, and the development of Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) technology based on high fidelity analysis.
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    Multi-UAV cooperative search on region division and path planning
    DAI Jian, XU Fei, CHEN Qifeng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (S1): 723770-723770.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23770
    Abstract2102)      PDF(pc) (4975KB)(960)       Save
    Aiming at the multi-UAV cooperative search, two sub-problems of UAV working region division and full-area coverage search path planning are discussed and analyzed. By adopting the parallel division method and the concave-convex decomposition method, the region division of convex polygons and non-convex polygons is carried out. Thus, the multi-UAV cooperative search problem is transformed into a single-UAV search problem on a sub-region. Based on this, the "Z"-type path coverage method and the Dubins turning path are used to implement the path planning on each small sub-region, establishing an overall invocation framework of regional division and path planning, which can quickly divide the target area and generate flight routes. Finally, the simulations of convex and non-convex polygons verify the validity of the proposed method in this study.
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    Review of aircraft battle damage assessment and repair estimation and design technology
    ZU Guangran, PEI Yang, HOU Peng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523455-523455.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23455
    Abstract2053)      PDF(pc) (5134KB)(1163)       Save
    Aircraft Battle Damage and Repair (ABDR) is one of the important means to improve aircraft survivability and combat capability. The research on ABDR technology covers the whole life stage of the aircraft. The research history and current advances are reviewed in this paper. The key points of ABDR system research are summarized from the aircraft battle damage assessment, aircraft design for battle damage repair, and aircraft battlefield rapid maintenance and support. Attentions are paid to the aircraft battle damage and repair pre-assessment technologies, field evaluation techniques of ABDR, the criteria and principles of aircraft design for battle field repair, evaluation method of aircraft design for battlefield damage and repair, aircraft expedient repair technologies, aircraft battle repair support method, etc. Furthermore, considering the system-of-system combat and intelligent combat environment in the future, the problems of aircraft battle damage and repair deserving further investigations are proposed, such as advanced materials structures aircraft battle damage and repair technologies, ABDR technology in helicopter, and the application of artificial intelligence in aircraft battle damage assessment and interdisciplinary technology in ABDR.
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    A survey of few shot learning based on intelligent perception
    SONG Chuang, ZHAO Jiajia, WANG Kang, LIANG Xinkai
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (S1): 723756-723756.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23756
    Abstract1997)      PDF(pc) (3616KB)(840)       Save
    Few-shot learning refers to using only a small amount of supervision information of the target class to train the machine learning model. Due to its practical values, recent advances in few-shot learning by academia and industry have made significant contributions. However, there were few reviews on this issue in China. This paper systematically summarizes and explores the few-shot learning algorithms and the object detection algorithms based on few-shot learning. Firstly, the problem definition of few-shot learning is given, and its connections with other classic machine learning problems are also enumerated. Meanwhile, the theoretical challenges of the problem of few-shot learning are explained. Then, we summarize the image classification based on few-shot learning, and analyze its representative works. Based on this, we focus on the problem of few-shot object detection, especially the problem of zero-shot object detection, and analyze the existing research works in detail. Finally, we look forward to the future development of few-shot learning in terms of problem setting, theoretical research, implementation technology, and application scenarios based on the advantages and disadvantages of the existing methods. It is expected to provide inspirations for the subsequent research works in this field.
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    Development and application of large-scale damage tolerance titanium alloy TC4-DT
    CHEN Lianguo, WANG Wensheng, ZHU Zhishou, ZHAO Yong, HUANG Jianyun, ZHANG Hai, PENG Fuhua
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523454-523454.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23454
    Abstract1994)      PDF(pc) (4949KB)(823)       Save
    To meet the need of large-scale damage tolerance titanium alloy for new generation fighter, this paper examines the TC4-DT titanium alloy’s composition and macrostructure control of large-scale bar and forging stock, the microstructure control during heat treatment process of large-scale forgings, the manufacturing process control of material and forgings, and the fatigue strengthening of parts. The results of large-scale ingot melting, large-scale bar and forging stock trail production, heavy section forging trail production, and structural design and manufacture show that the damage tolerance titanium alloy TC4-DT’s composition of large-scale ingots is homogeneous and the tensile strength coefficient variation of large-scale forging stocks and heavy section forgings can be reduced to about 2%. The impacts of laser shock peening, shot peening, and cold extrusion have remarkable life increment of the titanium alloy. The damage tolerance titanium alloy TC4-DT has been widely applied on new generation fighters.
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    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 0-0.  
    Abstract1930)      PDF(pc) (39931KB)(4081)       Save
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    Incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control and flight test based on angular acceleration estimation
    DANG Xiaowei, TANG Peng, SUN Hongqiang, ZHENG Chen
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (4): 323534-323534.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23534
    Abstract1892)      PDF       Save
    The Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (INDI) control law requires estimation of state derivative (angular acceleration) for real-time feedback and exists time delay caused by angular acceleration estimation, This paper proposes research and practical engineering solutions to the above problems. The dynamic model of the flight test Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform was established. The incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control law and the controller layered design method were used to design the UAV attitude control system. Using Kalman filter, the angular acceleration estimator is designed to provide real-time feedback of angular acceleration for the control law. The control law is implemented by a model-based control system design method, and the actual flight test is performed. The test results show that the control method is achievable in engineering and show good robustness and command tracking capability.
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    Quantum computing and its application prospect in aerodynamics
    LU Fengshun, CHEN Bo, JIANG Xiong
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (4): 23508-023508.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23508
    Abstract1807)      PDF(pc) (4856KB)(772)       Save
    Quantum computing is one of the most important post Moore’s Law computing technologies. It can harness the unparalleled computing capacity of the quantum computers, compared with classic computers. Quantum computing will bring a disruptive impact on various industries in the future. With respect to the opportunities and challenges brought by quantum computing to aerodynamics, we first present a detailed survey on the research progress of quantum computers, quantum algorithms, and quantum infrastructure software stack. Then, we select the most commonly used basic methods in the field of aerodynamics and present the recent advances in quantum equations in solving linear equations, interpolation operations, numerical integration, and search optimization. Next, the application prospects of quantum computing in the field of aerodynamics are systematically analyzed. Finally, we point out the research direction that needs to be focused on, including the quantum algorithm relevant to aerodynamics and the quantum software environment that should be built.
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    Ultra-fast estimation of pulsar period based on EMD-CS
    LIU Jin, HAN Xuexia, NING Xiaolin, CHEN Xiao, KANG Zhiwei
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (8): 623486-623486.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23486
    Abstract1806)      PDF(pc) (3353KB)(282)       Save
    In the Compressed Sensing (CS) for X-ray pulsar period estimation, the large size of measurement matrix leads to a large amount of calculation. To solve this problem, an ultra-fast pulsar period estimation method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition-Compressed Sensing (EMD-CS ) is proposed. The pulse profiles of multi-distortions are decomposed by EMD to obtain a series of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). As the IMFs contain local characteristic signals at different time scales, the weak local features of the pulse profile distortion can be reflected in some IMFs. The iteration and elimination method is used to eliminate redundant IMFs, and the remaining IMFs form the measurement matrix. Due to the small number of IMFs, the sampling rate is greatly reduced. By using the EMD-CS method, we can realize ultra-fast period estimation of X-ray pulsars. From the results of calculation complexity analysis, we can know that the sampling rate is proportional to the amount of calculation. The simulation results show that the sampling rate of EMD-CS is 0.25%, which is only 1/29 of FFT-CS. Thus, the calculation amount of EMD-CS is smaller than that of FFT-CS.
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    Review of development of light and small scale solar/hydrogen powered unmanned aerial vehicles
    LIU Li, CAO Xiao, ZHANG Xiaohui, HE Yuntao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (3): 623474-623474.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23474
    Abstract1800)      PDF(pc) (18888KB)(1263)       Save
    Light and small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have a wide range of applications in military and civilian fields. Electric UAVs have become a research hotspot with the features of low vibration, pollution-free and emission-free advantages. To improve the endurance of UAVs, the solar energy and hydrogen energy with clean and high energy density have become the most feasible technical approaches. In this paper, the development history of light and small scale solar and hydrogen powered UAVs are summarized. The related key technologies are combed through. The conceptual design methods of the solar and hydrogen powered UAVs and the development of energy powered systems are discussed. The development trend of this kind of UAVs in the future is given, and the development challenges are forecasted.
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    Development and applications of airport avian radar: Review
    CHEN Weishi, HUANG Yifeng, CHEN Xiaolong, LU Xianfeng, ZHANG Jie
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2022, 43 (1): 24758-024758.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24758
    Abstract1784)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (36464KB)(483)       Save
    Avian radar has become an important bird situation observation tool in airport bird strike avoidance. The origin of avian radar technology is first introduced, followed by analysis of the target characteristics of flying birds in terms of the target echo amplitude, flight speed, flight height, trajectory characteristics and micro-Doppler characteristics. Four typical airport avian radar systems, including Merlin radar, Accipiter radar, Robin radar and Aveillant radar, and the research status of the domestic avian radar technology are then introduced. Key radar technologies such as antenna, radar waveform, target detection and tracking, target recognition and classification are analyzed, and the performance of typical avian radar systems compared. In addition, the applications of avian radar are discussed with respect to the fusion of radar and photoelectric technologies, the linkage of bird detection and repellent, and the bird information analysis. Conclusions are finally drawn and prospects are made.
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