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声爆产生、传播和抑制机理研究进展

发布日期: 2023-01-12 | 浏览次数: 764
声爆产生、传播和抑制机理研究进展

张力文1,2, 宋文萍1,2, 韩忠华1,2, 钱战森3, 宋笔锋1                          

1. 西北工业大学 翼型、叶栅空气动力学国家级重点实验室, 西安 710072;
2. 西北工业大学 航空学院 气动与多学科优化设计研究所, 西安 710072;
3. 航空工业空气动力研究院, 沈阳 110034

Recent progress of sonic boom generation, propagation, and mitigation mechanism

ZHANG Liwen1,2, SONG Wenping1,2, HAN Zhonghua1,2, QIAN Zhansen3, SONG Bifeng1        

1. Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aerodynamic Design and Research, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China;
2. Institute of Aerodynamics and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China;
3. AVIC Aerodynamics Research Institute, Shenyang 110034, China

                                                  

摘要: 超声速民机能够显著提升航空运输效率,已成为未来民机发展的重要方向和必然趋势。然而,超声速飞行引起的声爆一直是制约超声速民机能否成功投入商业运营的核心瓶颈问题之一。以发展新一代环保型低声爆超声速民机为背景,综述了国内外在声爆产生、传播和抑制机理领域的现状和最新研究进展。首先,介绍了描述声爆产生的理论以及相关物理解释,总结了声爆形成的两大主要因素:体积效应和升力效应。其次,综述了大气效应作用下声爆传播机理的研究进展和趋势,论述了影响传播的大气介观湍流效应和微观吸收效应两个重要因素。之后,介绍了传播过程中减少激波汇聚、合理调整升力大小或分布及增加有效长度、利用激波折射与相互干扰等3类声爆抑制机理的研究进展。最后,探讨了在声爆产生、传播和抑制机理研究方面所面临的挑战,并给出了未来研究方向的建议。

关键词: 超声速民机, 声爆产生, 声爆传播, 声爆抑制, 大气效应

Abstract: Supersonic aircraft can improve transport efficiency remarkably and therefore, has become an important direction of future civil transports and an inevitable trend. However, the sonic boom has always been the bottleneck that limits the return of a commercial supersonic aircraft to service. Based on the development of a new generation of environmentally friendly low-boom supersonic civil aircraft, this article summarizes the current status and latest research progress of the generation, propagation, and mitigation mechanism of sonic boom at home and abroad. First, the theory of sonic boom generation is introduced, while relative explanations in the perspective of physics are described. The volume and lift effects are the two main factors that produce sonic booms. Secondly, the research progress and trends of sonic boom propagation mechanism under atmospheric effects are reviewed, wherein the atmospheric mesoscopic turbulence effect and microscopic absorption effect are two significant factors. Third, we summarize the recent progress of three types of sonic boom mitigation mechanisms, including preventing the coalescence of the shock wave, adjusting the lift reasonably or increasing the effective length, as well as using the interference and reflection of shock waves. Finally, some key issues and challenges relevant to the sonic boom generation, propagation and mitigation mechanism are discussed, and future research directions are suggested.

Key words: supersonic civil aircraft, sonic boom generation, sonic boom propagation, sonic boom mitigation, atmospheric effect

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