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    Development of future fighters
    YANG Wei
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 524377-524377.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24377
    Abstract10969)      PDF(pc) (4047KB)(13438)       Save
    Recent years have witnessed extensive discussions on the change of warfare forms and the development of post-4th generation fighters against the background of great power competition and batches of 4th generation fighters entering service. This paper reviews the origin of fighter generation classification and the driving elements behind each generational leap, outlining the evolution of Observe, Orient, Decision, Act (OODA) loops for air combat and proposing the essence of OODA 3.0. After a summary of the supportive and progressive relations among mechanization, informatization and intelligentization, it explores the dialectical relationship among autonomy and manned/unmanned, as well as that among platform, system of systems, and distributed operation, followed finally by a discussion of an agile and efficient development approach of future fighters.
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    Key technologies and future applications of thrust vectoring on fighter aircraft
    WANG Haifeng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 524057-524057.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24057
    Abstract3640)      PDF(pc) (11144KB)(5215)       Save
    Thrust vectoring can significantly expand the operational envelope of fighter aircraft and improve their flight safety and combat capabilities. A key technology in aerospace study and one of the typical features of advanced fighter aircraft, thrust vectoring involves multiple fields such as aerodynamics, air intake/exhaust, engines, and flight control. The integrated implementation of thrust vectoring is an interdisciplinary, closely-coupled and high-risk systematic project. This paper reviews the development of fighter aircraft thrust vectoring with an analysis of its key technologies. Based on the engineering practice of the first axial-symmetric thrust vectoring demonstrator in China, this paper elaborates the research on high angle of attack aerodynamic design for internal and external airflow, thrust vectoring engines, integrated flight and propulsion control and post-stall maneuvering flight test verification of fighter aircraft and other related key technologies. Finally, the contribution of thrust vectoring technology to the combat effectiveness of fighter aircraft is summarized and its future applications predicted.
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    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 0-0.  
    Abstract1930)      PDF(pc) (39931KB)(4081)       Save
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    Digital twin and its aerospace applications
    MENG Songhe, YE Yumei, YANG Qiang, HUANG Zhen, XIE Weihua
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (9): 23615-023615.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.23615
    Abstract4375)      PDF(pc) (4740KB)(2319)       Save
    Digital twin, the link between the physical and digital worlds, has currently attracted extensive attention both at home and abroad. Through establishment of a digital model of a physical system, real-time monitoring of the system status, and driving of the dynamic model update to describe and forecast system behaviors more accurately, the online decision optimization and feedback control are realized. In this paper, analyses show that compared with a general simulation model, the digital twin has outstanding characteristics of being centralized, dynamic, and integral. The development of the digital twin requires the support of complex system modeling, sensing and monitoring, big data, dynamic data-driven analysis and decision, and software platform technology. In the field of aerospace, digital twin can be applied to the design, development, manufacturing, assembly, operation and maintenance of aircraft. This article focuses on a case of application of the airframe digital twin to life prediction and maintenance decision, which exhibits advantages of lower maintenance frequencies and maintenance costs compared with the periodic maintenance. Finally, a preliminary application framework of a ground accompanying flight system established for space stations and reusable spacecraft is demonstrated.
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    Radar cross-section effect of canard
    GUO Zhanzhi, CHEN Yingwen, MA Lianfeng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523485-523485.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23485
    Abstract3907)      PDF(pc) (4964KB)(2242)       Save
    This paper studies the Radar Cross-Section (RCS) effect on canard configuration fighter of canard. First, the scattering mechanism of canard is analyzed. And then, the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) is used to compute the configuration’s RCS of the given fighter models. And by comparing the computational results of both the canard configuration and the conventional configuration, the RCS effect of canard is analyzed, focusing on the RCS effect on fighter after the canard is rotated. In addition, a full-size parts stealth test is conducted by researching the RCS effect on fighter of both edge scattering and gap scattering and respective inhibition measures. The test results show that, after the scattering of canard is inhibited, the RCS level of canard configuration can be applied to configuration design of stealth fighter. And its stealth capacity is comparable with that of the conventional configuration. Finally, the guiding principles of canard stealth design are postulated.
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    Review of aeroelasticity design for advanced fighter
    LI Qiuyan, LI Gang, WEI Yangtian, RAN Yuguo, WU Bo, TAN Guanghui, LI Yan, CHEN Shi, LEI Boqi, XU Qinwei
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523430-523430.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23430
    Abstract2369)      PDF(pc) (10636KB)(2197)       Save
    The birth of Chinese new-generation fighter leads all the technical innovation and development in aircraft designing field. Lean aero-elasticity design and verification technology system were established in AVIC Chengdu Aircraft Design and Research Institute according to the project development requirements and task particularity. Critical technology research and optimization design and analysis aiming at enhancing aircraft aero-elastic quality were carried out based on multi-disciplinary design optimization process. Whole aircraft dynamic characteristics ground test with consideration of all-movable surface structural nonlinearity, subsonic/transonic/supersonic flutter model wind tunnel tests that cover all Mach numbers and flight aero-elasticity test verification were completed and passed. Aero-elasticity design objective was achieved within a short development period, providing technical support for successful development of new-generation fighter. This paper describes the design process, major technical work of the aircraft, as well as the gained technical progress, capability enhancement, and knowledge engineering construction of aeroelastic design with research institute characteristics.
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    Recent development of unmanned aerial vehicle swarms
    JIA Yongnan, TIAN Siying, LI Qing
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (S1): 723738-723738.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23738
    Abstract2355)      PDF(pc) (4041KB)(1885)       Save
    Swarm as a typical collective behavior is omnipresent in animal kingdom, such as fish schooling, bird flocking, and bee swarming. In a colony, large-scale synchronous behavior emerges by virtue of local sensing and very simple communication rules. Inspired by these collective performances, the swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed as a new combat pattern. These unmanned aerial vehicles are characterized by large quantity, low cost, high speed, well adaptability, and convenient carried/launched mechanism, contributing to the scale advantage of UAVs and the possession of war initiative In recent years, many military powers, such as China, Russia, United States, have made great effort to the continuous development of swarm-related technology of unmanned aerial vehicles. To resolve the swarming problem of unmanned aerial vehicles, this paper introduces the research motivations of UAVs, summarizing the research approaches from modeling, control protocol, and execution platform. Besides, several classical combat modes and involved key technologies are discussed in detail. Above all, the swarm-related technology has bright application potential in the military area, leading to a brand new combat pattern.
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    Recent development of safety and reliability analysis technology for model-based complex system
    HU Xiaoyi, WANG Ruping, WANG Xin, FU Yongtao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523436-523436.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23436
    Abstract2300)      PDF(pc) (5530KB)(1863)       Save
    Safety and reliability analyses of complex systems have always been a hot issue in the general quality characteristics design of the material. With the development of airborne system towards integration, complexity, and intellectualization, the function logic, architecture design, and fault-tolerant design of the system become more and more complex. The traditional safety and reliability analytical methods based on artificial deductive reasoning cannot meet the current requirements. The model-driven design method is becoming an important technique for the safety and reliability design of complex systems. Especially in recent years, model-based system engineering technology has developed rapidly and has been widely used and recognized in domestic and foreign aviation enterprises, providing favorable conditions for the further development of model-based system safety and reliability design technology. This paper mainly introduces the research progress of model-based safety and reliability analysis technology of complex system at home and abroad analyzing the future development direction and trend of this technology, providing references for system safety and reliability analysis of the material.
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    Miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms: Review and outlook
    WANG Xiangke, LIU Zhihong, CONG Yirui, LI Jie, CHEN Hao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (4): 23732-023732.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23732
    Abstract2362)      PDF(pc) (12788KB)(1840)       Save
    Focusing on the new direction of miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms, this paper summarizes their recent developments from three aspects, i.e, the connotation of the swarm system, the existing typical programs, and the key technologies. After a systematic introduction of the connotation and application advantages of the swarm system, the existing typical programs are summarized from four perspectives: swarm collaborative mode exploration, distributed command system construction, key technology breakthroughs, and swarm verification. The current developments of technical research are reviewed in seven key points, including system architecture, communication and networking, decision-making and planning, aircraft platform, swarm flight, swarm security and swarm command and control. Finally, the future developments in the field of miniature fixed-wing UAV swarms are forecasted.
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    Current situation and development trend of multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system for aircraft
    HUANG Jiangtao, LIU Gang, GAO Zhenghong, ZHOU Zhu, CHEN Zuobin, JIANG Xiong
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (5): 623404-623404.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23404
    Abstract2107)      PDF(pc) (13721KB)(1590)       Save
    The multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system has many advantages, such as independence of multidisciplinary coupled sensitivity analysis from the number of design variables of various disciplines, and is thus an interesting development direction. This paper discusses the advantages, current situation, difficulties and future development trend of the multidisciplinary coupled adjoint system, including the disciplines of aerodynamics, structure, electromagnetism, acoustics, and infrared, which are closely related to aircraft design. The core contents, key technologies and current development situation of the single discipline and the multidisciplinary adjoint system are analyzed. The key technologies such as boundary condition processing, Jacobi derivation of multiple disciplines, and storage processing and solution of large sparse matrix are discussed systematically. The research ideas and solutions for respective key technologies and basic problems are given, and the development trend of multidisciplinary coupled adjoint theory and application is provided. Through this systematic discussion, we hope to provide meaningful suggestions for researchers engaged in multidisciplinary adjoint optimization and application, promote the research on multidisciplinary coupled system sensitivity, and the development of Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) technology based on high fidelity analysis.
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    Full-scale aircraft strength test technology of next generation fighter
    WANG Yupeng, PEI Lianjie, LI Qiulong, ZHENG Jianjun, FENG Jianmin, WANG Fan
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523482-523482.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23482
    Abstract2621)      PDF(pc) (5651KB)(1493)       Save
    This paper introduced the full-scale aircraft ground strength test and its requirements and analyzed the new problems and challenges in the test. Through the top-level planning for the test, new design mode and advanced loading technology are adopted to develop the overall technical scheme from the aspects of test boundary conditions, integrated platform, power system, measurement and control, and damage detection and monitoring. A number of new technologies, such as full-hard single-side bidirectional loading technology, test comprehensive platform design technology, boundary condition simulation technology, and power system design technology, have been studied and applied, which have improved design efficiency, accelerated test implementation speed, and improved test safety and reliability. These new technologies of this project have been successfully applied in the full-scale aircraft static/fatigue tests. The results showed that the test systems are safe and reliable, indicating that the test requirements and expected objectives have been achieved. The technologies have made great progress in the full-scale aircraft ground strength test, and the results have provided a high reference value for subsequent tests.
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    Development and application of strength design technology of high performance fighter
    ZHANG Lixin, ZHONG Shunlu, LIU Xiaodong, FU Huanbing, DUI Hongna, LIU Dongliang, JING Luyun, MOU Binjie, SHI Shanglu
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523480-523480.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23480
    Abstract1546)      PDF(pc) (13824KB)(1452)       Save
    The airframe of high performance fighter requires light weight, long life, multi-function, and high g capacity. To achieve this goal, in addition to the contribution of materials and manufacturing technology (new materials, new processes, and new structures), structural strength design, analysis, and verification technology of design institute must also be improved to meet the requirements. Focusing on the requirements of structural integrity, this paper describes the research results, technical development, and design practice of the strength team in recent years. It mainly includes the specification architecture for strength design and verification of high performance fighter, structural load screening technology based on multi-dimensional envelope, internal loads analysis technology based on unified FEM model, composite integrated structure analysis technology, detail stress analysis technology with high precision and efficiency, pre-tightening principle and strength design of embedded weapon bay door, rapid modeling, and acoustic fatigue analysis method of curved stiffened panel, prognostic and health management system design. The above research results have been successfully applied to the development of a new generation of high performance fighter airframe.
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    Review of numerical research on unsteady flows of the new generation fighters
    XIAO Zhixiang, CUI Wenyao, LIU Jian, LUO Kunyu, SUN Yuanhao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523451-523451.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23451
    Abstract1685)      PDF(pc) (13827KB)(1428)       Save
    The new generation fighters emphasize the super-maneuverability and high stealthy properties. The static stall and dynamic stall at high angles of attack and unsteady air-loads around the embedded weapon bay at supersonic speed are very challenging. The high accuracy and efficiency numerical simulations are urgently required. To simulate the flowfields accurately, clearly explore the flow mechanisms and effectively control the unsteady airloads, it’s required to develop the highly accurate and efficient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation (RANS-LES) hybrid model, including the model itself, the coupled high-order adaptive dissipation scheme, fundamental turbulence model, high quality computational grids, high-order time marching method, the statistical method of unsteady flow, and so on. This kind of RANS-LES hybrid model has been proposed, developed, validated and applied to the new-generation fighters, including the single component, junctions, even complete fighters. After comparing with the measurements, the numerical simulations perform very well, including the mean forces, and the pressure fluctuations. Therefore, the RANS-LES hybrid model can provide the theoretical basis and analyzing tools for the new-generation fighter design.
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    Review of key technologies of ultra-long-endurance solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle
    MA Dongli, ZHANG Liang, YANG Muqing, XIA Xinglu, WANG Shaoqi
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (3): 623418-623418.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23418
    Abstract1705)      PDF(pc) (17341KB)(1393)       Save
    Ultra-long endurance solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has attracted wide attention due to its characteristics of high efficiency, energy saving, and unlimited cruise in principle. However, its unique design indicators and mission characteristics also impose higher requirements for key technologies. High coupling of multiple design elements means that the overall design method is different from that of conventional aircraft. Low-density and low-speed flight conditions contribute to aerodynamic characteristics of a significantly low Reynolds number. Flexible wings with large aspect ratio bring complex aeroelastic problems. The characteristics of low wing load and large wind disturbance increase the difficulty of control. Extreme flight environments and demanding mission indicators pose new challenges to energy and power systems. The high dependence on energy opens up the research direction of flight trajectory optimization. This paper summarizes the research status of key technologies of the ultra-long-endurance solar UAVs. On this basis, the difficulties in key technologies are explained, and the future trend of ultra-long endurance solar UAV is illustrated.
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    Application of integrated thermal management in development of advanced fighter system
    TU Min, YUAN Gengmin, XUE Fei, WANG Xiaoming
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523629-523629.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23629
    Abstract1517)      PDF(pc) (4431KB)(1304)       Save
    The development of foreign advanced fighter is analyzed and the demand changes and development trend are compared. The connotation of integrated thermal management is expounded. Combined with the studies of advanced fighters in China, the necessity and feasibility of integrated thermal management have been demonstrated by the development of the thermal management system. According to the actual situation in China, a design of comprehensive optimization of heat collection, heat transmission, and heat emission is proposed. The efficient heat transmission means and engineering implementation approaches to heat emission and structural integration based on stealth are adopted. The comprehensive application based on temperature controlled flow regulation, comprehensive heat control of internal and external circulating, multi-mode reconstruction technology realizes the management of heat sink and cooling capacity, meeting the requirement of thermal management in different states. This paper also provides opinions on the future development of and challenges of thermal management.
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    Review of development of light and small scale solar/hydrogen powered unmanned aerial vehicles
    LIU Li, CAO Xiao, ZHANG Xiaohui, HE Yuntao
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (3): 623474-623474.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23474
    Abstract1800)      PDF(pc) (18888KB)(1263)       Save
    Light and small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have a wide range of applications in military and civilian fields. Electric UAVs have become a research hotspot with the features of low vibration, pollution-free and emission-free advantages. To improve the endurance of UAVs, the solar energy and hydrogen energy with clean and high energy density have become the most feasible technical approaches. In this paper, the development history of light and small scale solar and hydrogen powered UAVs are summarized. The related key technologies are combed through. The conceptual design methods of the solar and hydrogen powered UAVs and the development of energy powered systems are discussed. The development trend of this kind of UAVs in the future is given, and the development challenges are forecasted.
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    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2021, 42 (4): 0-0.  
    Abstract589)      PDF(pc) (54091KB)(1220)       Save
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    Research development of solar powered UAV mission planning technology in large-scale time and space spans
    WU Jianfa, WANG Honglun, HUANG Yu
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (3): 623414-623414.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23414
    Abstract1442)      PDF(pc) (7940KB)(1180)       Save
    Using the mission planning technology to optimize the flight trajectory and dynamical parameters, the energy utilization of the Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) can be effectively improved, making it qualified for many flight missions in large time spans and space spans. In this paper, the research development of the SUAV mission planning technology in large time spans and space spans is reviewed from the energy modeling, endurance evaluation, and energy management strategy. In energy modeling, the current mainstream solar radiation models and energy production basic frameworks are introduced. In endurance evaluation, the present index designs and application methods are analyzed. In energy management strategy, the current research status is combed through in terms of energy comprehensive utilization, gliding mechanism in wind fields, trajectory optimization method, and application for specific missions. Finally, promising research directions of this field are prospected.
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    Current status and prospect of overseas research on aeronautical fatigue
    SUN Xiasheng, SU Shaopu, SUN Hanbin, DONG Dengke
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2021, 42 (5): 524791-524791.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2020.24791
    Abstract1330)   HTML57)    PDF(pc) (17003KB)(1169)       Save
    Fatigue is one of the key factors affecting the performance of aircraft in research or service. In this article, firstly, the aeronautical accidents caused by fatigue were quoted as clues to state the evolution of structural strength design concept and research situation at each specific period. Meanwhile, international aeronautical fatigue research and their significant development as well as the future developing directions in areas since 21 century has been reviewed and evaluated in the aspects of structural long-life design, fatigue analysis approaches and tools, full-scale structural fatigue testing technology, structural health monitoring and life extension of aging aircraft. Conclusively, considering the current problems and potential development directions, the challenges resisting the realization of high requirement on the long life, lightweight and high reliability of future aircraft design were pointed out on four topics:aeronautical fatigue on evaluation basic research, design and application research, testing evaluation and digital technology, which provides technical materials for the development of aeronautical fatigue.
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    Review of aircraft battle damage assessment and repair estimation and design technology
    ZU Guangran, PEI Yang, HOU Peng
    ACTA AERONAUTICAET ASTRONAUTICA SINICA    2020, 41 (6): 523455-523455.   DOI: 10.7527/S1000-6893.2019.23455
    Abstract2053)      PDF(pc) (5134KB)(1163)       Save
    Aircraft Battle Damage and Repair (ABDR) is one of the important means to improve aircraft survivability and combat capability. The research on ABDR technology covers the whole life stage of the aircraft. The research history and current advances are reviewed in this paper. The key points of ABDR system research are summarized from the aircraft battle damage assessment, aircraft design for battle damage repair, and aircraft battlefield rapid maintenance and support. Attentions are paid to the aircraft battle damage and repair pre-assessment technologies, field evaluation techniques of ABDR, the criteria and principles of aircraft design for battle field repair, evaluation method of aircraft design for battlefield damage and repair, aircraft expedient repair technologies, aircraft battle repair support method, etc. Furthermore, considering the system-of-system combat and intelligent combat environment in the future, the problems of aircraft battle damage and repair deserving further investigations are proposed, such as advanced materials structures aircraft battle damage and repair technologies, ABDR technology in helicopter, and the application of artificial intelligence in aircraft battle damage assessment and interdisciplinary technology in ABDR.
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