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翼面前缘共形电热除冰功能结构开发与验证

唐超,谢文俊,袁培毓,谢宗蕻   

  1. 中山大学
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-29 修回日期:2022-09-26 出版日期:2022-09-30 发布日期:2022-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 谢宗蕻

Development and verification of a conformal electrothermal deicing functional structure for the leading edge of the airfoil

  • Received:2022-07-29 Revised:2022-09-26 Online:2022-09-30 Published:2022-09-30

摘要: 针对飞机翼面前缘的防/除冰问题,设计开发了一种轻质、高效、低能耗、共形的飞机翼面前缘石墨烯复合材料电热除冰功能结构并开展了除冰性能实验验证。采用将石墨烯加热膜与复合材料层合结构集成的设计方案,使用自研开发的热压成型设备在飞机翼面前缘原位胶接固化了0.75mm厚的石墨烯复合材料电热除冰共形加热器功能结构;通过实验比较常温和低温环境下,相同功率密度时共形加热器的温升情况,验证了共形加热器的加热均匀性和稳定性;采用一种原位共形结冰技术在飞机翼面前缘表面制备了厚度可控的冰层并进行了加热器除冰性能测试,获得了不同功率密度情况下共形加热器的除冰效果,最后与传统翼面前缘金属丝共形电热除冰结构进行对比分析。结果表明:共形加热器与翼面前缘共形胶接质量良好,面密度为0.0827g/cm2,热响应迅速,加热性能稳定,加热区域温度均匀;随着加热器功率密度的不断增加,除冰时间缩短,除冰效果越好;功率密度为15kW/m2时,可以在40s内完全融化底部界面冰层;在达到相同除冰效果的前提下,与传统翼面前缘金属丝共形电热除冰结构相比,新型电热除冰结构所需功率密度明显更低。因此,开发的飞机翼面前缘石墨烯复合材料共形加热器可以真正实现结构功能一体化,在不改变飞机翼面前缘气动外形和重量增加极小的情况下,获得优良的电热除冰效果。

关键词: 电热除冰, 原位共形, 石墨烯复合材料, 翼面前缘, 功能结构

Abstract: Aiming at the problem of preventing and deicing the leading edge of aircraft wing, a lightweight, high-efficiency, low energy consumption, conformal graphene composite material for aircraft wing leading edge electrothermal deicing functional struc-ture is designed and experimentally verified. Adopting the design scheme of integrating the graphene heating film and the composite material laminate structure, a 0.75mm thick graphene composite material electrothermal deicing conformal heater is cured by in-situ bonding on the leading edge of the aircraft wing using the self-developed thermoforming equipment; The heating uniformity and stability of the conformal heater are verified by comparing the temperature rise of the conformal heater under room and low temperature environments with the same power density; The ice layer with controllable shape and thickness is prepared on the surface of the leading edge of the aircraft wing by an in-situ conformal icing method, and the deicing performance of the heater under different power densities is tested. Finally, a comparative analysis is made with the traditional airfoil leading edge wire conformal electrothermal deicing structure. The test results show that the conformal bonding between the conformal heater and the leading edge of the airfoil is of good quality; With the continuous increase of power density, the deicing time of the conformal heater is shortened, and the deicing effect is better; when the power density is 15kW/m2, the bottom interface ice layer can be completely melted within 40s. On the premise of achieving the same de-icing effect, the power density required by the new electrothermal deicing structure is significantly lower than that of the traditional airfoil leading edge metal wire conformal electrothermal deicing structure. The graphene composite conformal heater based upon the leading edges of wings is a promising solution for elector-thermal deicing in terms of both good con-formal and deicing effects.

Key words: Elector-thermal deicing, In situ conformal, Graphene composites, leading edge, Functional structure

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