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超声速民机总体气动布局设计发展历程与关键技术研究进展-超声速民机气动专栏

丁玉临1,韩忠华1,乔建领1,聂晗1,宋文萍2,宋笔锋2   

  1. 1. 西北工业大学
    2. 西北工业大学航空学院
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-02 修回日期:2021-10-12 出版日期:2021-10-14 发布日期:2021-10-14
  • 通讯作者: 韩忠华
  • 基金资助:
    考虑声爆约束的超声速自然层流机翼设计方法;新概念前掠自然层流机翼的横流不稳定性抑制机理与优化设计

History and Research Progress of Key Technologies for Conceptual-Aerodynamic Configuration Design of Supersonic Transport Aircraft

  • Received:2021-09-02 Revised:2021-10-12 Online:2021-10-14 Published:2021-10-14
  • Contact: HAN Zhong-Hua

摘要: 超声速民机已成为世界民机未来发展主要方向之一。超声速民机由于涉及声爆等一系列特殊的技术问题,比亚声速民机的性能要求更苛刻,对总体气动布局设计提出了更高要求。首先,根据设计思想和主要技术特点,将世界迄今为止的代表性超声速民机布局方案划分为三代:第一代布局兼顾高低速性能,基本为三角翼/双三角翼布局;第二代布局主要考虑低声爆/低阻性能,主要采用大后掠箭形翼无尾布局;第三代布局在低声爆/低阻要求基础上,更加注重多学科综合性能和技术可行性。这一代布局主要采用“大后机翼+鸭翼/T尾/V尾布局和发动机短舱背负式/尾吊式”的布局,经过了超声速低阻和低声爆面积律初步设计和基于高可信度数值模拟的多学科精细化设计。其次,梳理了新一代超声速民机总体气动布局设计目前面临的技术瓶颈和难点,对总体设计技术、低声爆设计技术、超声速减阻技术和飞-发一体化设计技术的国内外研究进展和现状进行了综述和分析。最后,展望了新一代超声速民机总体气动布局的发展趋势,针对仍需突破的关键科学与技术问题,探讨了重要研究方向。未来将优先发展超声速公务机或中小型超声速民机,其布局技术特点趋近于第三代布局,声爆、减阻、飞-发一体化、起降噪声、气动弹性、人机功效等方面的综合性能和工程可实现性将成为重点研究对象。

关键词: 超声速民机, 总体设计技术, 低声爆设计技术, 超声速减阻技术, 飞-发一体化设计技术

Abstract: Next-generation supersonic transport aircraft (STA) has become one of the main directions for civil aviation transport in the future. Compared with subsonic civil aircraft, STA involves a series of technical problems such as sonic boom and is confronted with more strict performance index, which puts forward higher requirements for the conceptual-aerodynamic configuration design. First, according to the design strategy and the main technical fea-ture, the world's existing supersonic civil aircraft configurations so far can be divided into three generations. The first-generation configurations mainly adopt a delta wing/ double-delta wing platform to balance both high and low speed performance. Taking the low-boom and low-drag performance into consideration, highly-swept arrow-wing tailless layout is applied to the second-generation configurations. The third-generation configurations focus more on the multi-disciplinary comprehensive performance and the technical feasibility. Almost all these configurations adopt T-tail or V-tail layout and engine nacelle knapsack or tail crane layout. Besides, conceptual design using low-drag/ low-boom area rule and multi-disciplinary design based on high-fidelity simulation are also extensively con-ducted. Then, the technical bottlenecks and difficulties of new generation STA conceptual-aerodynamic configura-tion design are also presented. The progress and state of the art of conceptual design technology, low-boom design technology, supersonic drag reduction technology and airframe-propulsion integrated design technology are sum-marized and analyzed. Finally, the development trend of a new-generation STA configuration is investigated, and some the key scientific and technical issues that still need to be broken through are suggested. Supersonic busi-ness jet or small and medium class STA will be realized at first in the near future. Their technical features will tend to be those of the third-generation configurations. Comprehensive performance and engineering realizability about sonic boom, drag reduction, airframe-propulsion integration, aeroelasticity, man-machine efficacy and so on should be mainly concerned in the research.

Key words: supersonic transport aircraft, conceptual design technology, low-boom design technology, supersonic drag reduc-tion technology, airframe-propulsion integrated design technology

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